History of Toyota
The history of the largest Japanese companies to produce cars Toyota started in 1933, after the trip of the founder Kiitiro Toyoda in the United States of America, at its factories began manufacturing trucks Toyota G1. And differences in the names of the founder and the name of the car brand due to the large sonority. Brand "Toyota" was registered in 1937, and after 6 months was built the first factory of the company. In the same year he was presented the first model of Toyota group AA, based on the hire American brands Dodge and Chevrolet.
With the outbreak of the Second World War, all production facilities of the industrial Empire Kiitiro Toyoda were transferred to the production of military equipment and the needs of the army of Japan. In these conditions brand "Toyota" was no exception, having established their plant production of military trucks. However, in 1944, after the massive bombing of the factories of the company "Toyota" were destroyed.
Production was resumed only at the end of 1946, and the first car company was introduced in 1947. They became the model of Toyota SA, based on the work of Ferdinand Porsche - the people's car Germany Volkswagen 1200. However, the engine was located four-cylinder power unit, in contrast to the two-cylinder in the original. In addition, the model was manufactured only in one variation of the body is all metal. The motors were installed with three-step mechanical gearbox. In 1950 began a full-fledged economic crisis inside a dilapidated industrial Empire "Toyoda" that gave rise to the mass strikes. Including on the comparatively successful "Toyota", where, in contrast to other divisions of the conglomerate "Toyoda", working time was paid.
After all the financial problems were solved, the company "Toyota" was widely independence, but on the side of concern "Toyoda" was exhibited only by the observer at a constant presence on the Board of Directors of the brand family members Toyoda. In 1951, was founded as an independent company "Toyota Motor sales, which acted as an official dealer, opening more than 50 locations throughout the automotive market, Japan, China, South Korea and Central Asia.
After the death of founder Kiitiro Toyoda in 1952, the course of development of the brand dramatically changed, which led to significant changes in management and production structure of the firm. Descendants Kiitiro decided to resume cooperation with the armed forces, presenting off-road vehicle that could be sold to anyone, as ordinary citizens, and the army.
After two years of development, in 1954, was presented model Land Cruiser, one of the first SUV from Japan. The car was so pleased to foreign investors, which for 60 years was adopted for service with the armies of countries such as Ireland, Eritrea, Singapore and Israel. In addition, field testing of the model has allowed the company "Toyota" to develop a universal four-wheel drive platform, which was installed on passenger cars in the 80-90s of the 20th century.
In 1956 was presented model Toyota crown, equipped with a 1.5-litre power unit with a capacity of 60 horsepower and a three-stage gearbox. Just one year after launch, it has begun shipments to the automotive market of the United States of America, which made its first successful Japanese machine at the biggest market of those years. In 1961, the company has embarked on the creation of fuel-efficient compact cars, saw the light of Toyota Audience, which allowed to increase the production of cars the Japanese automaker, bringing the number of sold cars to one million in 1962.
In 1966, the company Toyota has introduced a new compact model called the Corolla, which had a 1.1 liter engine and rear-wheel drive transmission. Profits from sales of this model has allowed the brand "Toyota" to solve one of their main problems is the development of efficient and inexpensive power units, through the purchase of a controlling stake in another Japanese brand "Daihatsu".
The outbreak of world fuel crisis has ensured the rapid growth of car sales Toyota. The company set a new path of development, releasing one new model every year. So in 1970, was presented model Celica, which formed the basis of the whole lineup of fuel-efficient cars. In addition, sales growth models of the Toyota company in the United States of America, in Canada was opened several factories of the brand, contributing to the growth of production volumes to meet demand.
In 1983 the company "Toyota" attempted to create a car business class, releasing the model Toyota Camry, specifically for the American automotive market. The model was equipped with the new generation of engines for Daihatsu that since 1982 were carried out under the brand "Toyota". However, despite a number of revolutionary solutions, the model could not compete with the cars "Cadillac" or "Dodge", which essentially struck the welfare of the Japanese firm, which 90% of its profits were invested in modernization of production capacities in the years 1982-1987.
In 1988, the world saw the second generation model Corolla that has gained high popularity in the automotive market in Europe. In addition, the company began to create a full-sized off-road vehicles, presenting a new generation of Land Cruiser and American 4Runner. A year later, feeling much better so from the crisis of the mid-80s, the company "Toyota", considering all the errors with the output of the model Camry, registered trademark "Lexus". This company "Lexus" was able to prepare a luxury version of the car "Toyota" for the American market, gained great popularity. But the main achievement of the company on the US market, without a doubt, you can call the victory over the more experienced premimum-brands "infinity" and "Acura", belonging to the companies "Nissan" and "Honda", respectively. Victory over direct competitors allowed to increase car sales Toyota and the Japanese domestic market, which resulted in sales growth of 31%, while the growth rates for cars in 12%.
In 1990 he founded a subsidiary of Toyota Design that delivered the Japanese automaker from cooperation with design Studio from Europe. The first car with a design developed by the designers of the company, became the model of the RAV4, which laid the Foundation class all-wheel-drive crossovers. Under the hood of the mid-sized model Toyota Rav4 were located two-liter power units with a capacity of 135 and 178 horsepower, and buyers could choose not only the type of the body - three or five-door variant, but the type of gearbox - automatic or mechanical. And after a year on the basis of this model was presented for the first minivan Toyota, designed exclusively for the automotive market of the United States of America and Europe.
In 1998, has been completely renewed model range of the company, and presents two brand-new models - the mid-sized sedan Toyota avensis, equipped with petrol engines 110-128 horsepower, and a full-size SUV Toyota Land Cruiser. In addition to the full drive and frame construction, the vehicle may be equipped with a 4.5-liter six-cylinder engine capacity of 212 horsepower 4.7-liter eight-cylinder engine capacity of 228 horsepower. 3 years later lineup of the company has again been modernized, and in the process of creating cars Toyota technologies were introduced at a single platform, thus avoiding the technical problems and improve the reliability of all company cars.
In 2001 the management of the concern Toyota decided to put the factory team in one of the most prestigious racing series Formula 1, and the title sponsor of the team became a Corporation Matsushita, placing the cars Toyota advertising of the brand "Panasonic". However, building the base for the team in Germany was delayed too long, and development of engine required additional costs, and in the end, the debut of the Japanese team took place only in 2002. The first three years of participation in such a serious competition did not bring Toyota's success, and the development of new cars demanded more and more serious funds. This was a turning point in the brief history of the team.
In 2005 were invited to some of the best riders of the time - Jarno Trulli, who was dismissed from the team "Reno" and Ralf Schumacher, the younger brother of multiple champion who has achieved some success in the legendary team, "Williams". The results went up, riders came from time to time to finish in the top three, but the long-awaited victory to get failed. In 2008 hit the world financial crisis, putting an end to further the team's performance Toyota in the race, even despite the fact that in 2007 the group of companies "Toyota" has become the largest automaker in the world. But contract riders spent a full season in 2009, after which the program Formula 1 for Japanese concern was minimized. The base of the team in Germany came under the control of the brand "Lexus" as Speedway, "Fuji", which began to be tested in a sports car brand.
In 2007-2010, despite financial difficulties, the company "Toyota" holds regular modernization of its model range, including the latest generation of all relevant models, the flagship of which was the Land Cruiser 200, which became the sales leader in the automotive market of Russia, Canada and the United States of America in its class. In addition, 2010 marked the company "Toyota" development of a revolutionary hybrid platform for their cars, which caused the number of disputes and lawsuits from competitors. But the leadership of the group of companies "Toyota" assured that by 2025, all cars Japanese company will be built on this platform, which will significantly reduce fuel consumption, but also to save dynamic data vehicles.
And in 2011 the group of companies "Toyota", through its subsidiaries have tried to expand their stake in the company "Subaru" from 5 to 35%, but the Japanese government blocked the deal, causing it Antimonopoly law.
In 2012, the company Toyota has started the construction of a number of factories in China that will allow for 2020 to increase production of cars in 1.5 times. In addition, in all major cities of the world were opened research centers, which take an active part in the development of more environmentally friendly power units and measures to improve road safety.
In the same year it was announced the new generation light rear-wheel drive sports cars Toyota GT86, developed in conjunction with the brand name "Subaru". The engine model is located two-liter turbocharged engine of the new generation, with a capacity of 200 horsepower. In 2013, the Japanese company has announced the release of the vehicle on the basis of the fifth generation Rav4, which is a fully electrified crossover with a powerful electric motor and a power reserve on one charge of 390 kilometers.