History of Volvo
In 1927 he founded the Swedish car company Volvo, which started as a division of a large manufacturer of bearings company "SKF". In the same year he was presented the first model of the brand Jakob OV4, equipped with a twin-cylinder power unit with a capacity of 28 horsepower. However, in 1935 the company "Volvo" attains full independence, along with the new leadership.
In 1928, he was presented the first modification of the model OV4 called PV4. The car has become much longer, and got a hard top, which was favourably received by buyers. In the same year was presented the first truck Volvo Typ 1 replaced in the lineup of light trucks built based on the model OV4. As we opened our first foreign office of the Swedish brand in the Finnish capital.
In addition to the modifications of the model OV4, engineers Volvo started to create six-cylinder power unit, which was introduced in 1929, the new model PV651. In addition, the company management decided to pay maximum attention to the safety of passengers, albeit by adding optional front disc brakes.
However, in 1930 after the Volvo PV651 became the official car for taxi, sales soared tenfold, and profit, rationally, was aimed at creating new models. In the same year was presented the second generation of Volvo PV652, received a more rounded body, and a slight weight reduction. In addition, the car was fitted with hydraulic brakes on all four wheels, and the management of the company "Volvo", meanwhile, bought two plants - one of the old factories "SKF" and the production capacity of the firm "Pentawere", specializing in the creation of power units. At the same time, due to high competition from American concern General motors", which was produced in Sweden cars under the brand name "Chevrolet", but lower prices for cars Volvo has enabled the company not only to get the first large profit, but to pay investors dividends.
In 1932, was presented to the upgraded version of Volvo PV652, which received a new power unit with the capacity of 65 horsepower. In 1933, however, the model gave place to two cars of different classes PV653 and PV654. In addition, cars have become so important constructive revision as improved sound insulation. In 1934, the Volvo introduced the first on the Swedish market seven-seater taxi, which became the most popular means of transport private transport, due to the fact that the car had the same price as five-seat version.
One of the most important factors in the further development of the company "Volvo" was the neutral Sweden during World War II. This allowed the brand Volvo to continue to upgrade their machines, reducing annual turnover models only 10%, exactly the hire of the total number were exported. However, the American strategy gradually began to go counter to the desire of the company "Volvo" to maximize the security of their vehicles.
In 1946 broke real crisis for the brand "Volvo" as the work of other contractors responsible for the delivery of raw materials to create components, the Swedish company has been facing a difficult problem. Originally it was even planned to go to lower quality items produced in the United States, but the U.S. government froze the deal. In order to prevent a complete shutdown of the plants operation "Volvo" for an indefinite period, the company management decided to pay higher wages to all striking workers that had deprived the company profits, but the production is not stopped.
Due to such drastic measures, for 5 years ceased production at the Swedish plants main competitor Volvo group, "General motors". Meanwhile, the Swedish brand has become one of the largest automakers in Europe, setting a series of records, which contributed to the stable position of the economy and the internal market of Sweden.
In the 1950s year, the company "Volvo" continues to actively upgrade their cars, gradually reaching new market segments. The so-produced modifications of the standard vehicles for fire, medical facilities, schools and even the army of the country. Stable growth in profits leads to the fact that the company opens its own unit for the production of trucks, investing in it a solid tool and starts to export its the best car on the market of the United States of America.
A new stage in the development of the Swedish company Volvo became the 1970s, it was then opened a design Studio in the automaker, which was developed aircraft appearance, which was really awkward and little resembled the aircraft. However, it is square shape became the hallmark of the company. In 1971 production company "Volvo" was completely converted to using injection powertrain, the crown jewel of which was the model A equipped with engine capacity of 175 horsepower. In 1972 was presented experimental model of Volvo, which is the mobile model for testing of technological developments. In the same year introduced such revolutionary solutions as ABS and EBD. In addition, through its subsidiary company under the control of the Volvo passed a 33% stake in the Dutch truck manufacturer DAF.
In 1973 he started the world oil crisis, and the Volvo for the first time in its history, received the loss for the year, and in the warehouses of dealers of the brand appeared to be hundreds of useless cars. At the same time, on the territory of the United States, car sales Volvo steadily, but from an economic point of view it did not bring profit, due to expensive shipping cars across the ocean. However, a solution was found quickly, and in Canada, the company opened its first factory Volvo, and Toronto is located the main North American office of the Swedish concern.
In 1974 was signed strategic cooperation between the company "Volvo" and French carmakers Renault and Peugeot. And in 1977 were presented model Volvo 240 and 262 - luxury coupe and sedan, equipped with the new generation of power units, with a capacity of 140 horsepower. But the following year was to be traced to an apparent conflict within the leadership of the company, which led to the separation into an independent division of the company "Volvo Cars". However, it had no impact on product quality, which has become a reference that confirms not only the number of prizes and awards, and international safety requirements of vehicles developed on the basis of the standard features of the car brand Volvo.
The next 20 years, became the company's experiments. The products enjoyed a high and stable demand, so the engineers can unleash the imagination and work on developing new models, radically different from the usual cars of the Swedish brand. So were presented coupe-cabriolet Volvo CC, as well as in cooperation with the company "Renault Sport", the Motorsport division of the French group, have developed several variants of streamline bodies, which had increased aerodynamic efficiency. In 1990 an agreement was signed on joint work trucks between Volvo and Renault, which has become a very valuable achievement, because after only 2 years the European truck market by 30% consisted of machines of these two brands.
In the 1990s, the company chose a new path of development of their vehicles, providing all current model range, built on all-wheel drive chassis. Buyers welcomed this decision, and journalists dubbed "Volvo" Swedish "BMW". By 2000, the company occupies the highest place in all the rankings of the best cars, but it was not the same company as before. The reason was the continuing conflict between shareholders, "Volvo", which led to a protracted dispute about the future of the automaker. So in 1999, by a majority vote, when dissatisfaction with the Swedish government's controlling stake in the company "Volvo" was sold to the American company "Ford".
Further cooperation between Renault and Volvo was in jeopardy, but American managers decided free of charge transfer of 20% equity units Volvo trucks cars. In addition, the Swedish company continues to release new models, in turn, providing its technology and patents in the use of "Ford", which was actively used in the construction of cars of premium class.
Once at the helm of Volvo stood strategic group of American specialists in 2003, the rate of car production companies began gradually to decline, not helped by the update of the current model range. Therefore, the company "Volvo" was released on low earnings, but the real horror began 5 years later. World financial crisis has resulted in new car sales worldwide fell by 30%, especially painful hitting brands, specializing in the production of vehicles of medium and premium classes. Solution concern "Ford" to rescue the Swedish company Volvo, became a full freeze the development of new models of the company, and then complete cessation of production of cars in the period from mid-2009 to 1 January 2010. Thus, the American group was able to gain time to find new owners of unprofitable enterprises.
New owners of Swedish steel company "Geely" and the Chinese government. Under the agreement, the Chinese automaker can make full use of all the technical developments of the company Volvo, a Swedish company, in turn, remains independent. In addition, the release of the first models developed with the participation of Chinese automaker, was scheduled for 2015, which was supposed to prepare buyers to change the focus of the brand.